Single phase induction motors require just one power phase for their operation. They are commonly used in low power rating applications, in domestic as well as industrial use. This article is aimed at giving you a conceptual overview of the working of single phase motors.The following article gives a detailed description of the video lecture.
Parts of a Single Phase Induction Motor
The main components of a single phase motor are the rotor and stator winding. The rotor is the rotating part, the stator winding helps in rotating the rotor. In Fig.1 the iron layer lamina which is fitted inside rotor is not shown, for better viewing of the rotor bars.
|Fig.1 Mains parts of single phase induction motor : Rotor and Stator|
|Fig.2 Single phase motor has got 2 perpendicularly placed wingdings|
Working of Single Phase Motor
To understand its working better, let’s assume there is only one coil in the main and auxiliary winding.
|Fig.3 We will analyse a case with both the wingdings are having one coil|
|Fig.3 AC current passing through main winding will produce a fluctuating magnetic field|
|Fig.4 A rotor with initial rotation will keep on rotating in a fluctuating magnetic field|
The Reason – Double Revolving Field Theory
The fluctuating field is equivalent to the sum of two oppositely rotating magnetic fields. This concept is known as double revolving field theory. By looking at the figure below, you can easily understand the theory. Here one fluctuating quantity is represented as a vector sum of 2 oppositely rotating quantities, for 3 time instances.
|Fig.5 Fluctuating field at RHS of each figure is equivalent to sum of 2 oppositely rotating magnetic fields|
|Fig.6 Effect of RMF on rotor : It will induce a starting torque|
|Fig.7 Motor will not be able to start here, since there 2 torques which are equal and opposite|
|Fig.8 An initial rotation of rotor will produce one torque greater than other|
How to Provide Initial Rotation ?
But one big problem remains; how to provide such an initial rotation to the rotor ?. Nikola Tesla, a famous Yugoslav inventor suggested one ingenious solution to this problem.
If we can cancel any of the rotating fields, we will be able to start the motor. The auxiliary winding cum capacitor arrangement is used exactly for this purpose. Auxiliary winding also produces 2 oppositely revolving magnetic fields. One of them will cancel the RMF of the main winding and the other will get added up. The result will be a single magnetic field, which revolves under specific speed. This phenomenon is shown diagrammatically in the following picture.
|Fig.9 Effect of auxiliary winding cum capacitor arrangement : One RMF gets cancelled other gets added up|