Brushless DC Motor, How it works ?

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In order to make the operation more reliable, more efficient, and less noisy the recent trend has been to use brushless D.C (BLDC) motors. They are also lighter compared to brushed motors with the same power output. This article gives an illustrative introduction on the working of BLDC motors.

A detailed webpage version of the video is given below.



Why BLDC motors ?

The brushes in conventional D.C motors wear out over the time and may cause sparking. This is illustrated in the Fig.1. As a result the conventional D.C motors require occasional maintainance. Controlling the brush sparking in them is also a difficult affair.

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Fig.1 The brushes in a conventional D.C motor might cause sparking as shown

Thus the brushed D.C motor should never be used for operations that demand long life and reliability. Fort this reason and the other reasons listed in the introduction, BLDC motors are used in most of the modern devices. Efficiency of a BLDC motor is typically around 85-90%, whereas the conventional brushed motors are only 75-80% efficient. BLDC motors are also suitable for high speed applications ( 10000 rpm or above). The BLDC motors are also well known for their better speed control.

The Basic working

The rotor and stator of a BLDC motor are shown in the Fig.2. It is clear that, the rotor of a BLDC motor is a permanent magnet.

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Fig.2 The Rotor of a BLDC is a permanent magnet; the stator has a winding arrangment

The stator has a coil arrangement, as illustrated; The internal winding of the rotor is illustrated in the Fig.3 (core of the rotor is hidden here). The rotor has 3 coils, named A, B and C.
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Fig.3 The coil arrangement in a BLDC is shown here, with different color for different coils

Out of these 3 coils, only one coil is illustrated in the Fig.4 for simplicity. By applying DC power to the coil, the coil will energize and become an electromagnet.
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Fig.4 The coil energized by a DC power source becomes an electromagnet

The operation of a BLDC is based on the simple force interaction between the permanent magnet and the electromagnet. In this condition, when the coil A is energized, the opposite poles of the rotor and stator are attracted to each other (The attractive force is shown in green arrow). As a result the rotor poles move near to the energized stator.
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Fig.5 The rotor moves towards the energized coil, due to the attractive force

As the rotor nears coil A, coil B is energized. As the rotor nears coil B, coil C is energized. After that, coil A is energized with the opposite polarity (compare the last part of Fig.6 with Fig.5).
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Fig.6 In a BLDC, as the rotor nears the energized coil, the next coils is energized; this will make the rotor continuously rotate

This process is repeated, and the rotor continues to rotate. The DC current required in the each coil is shown in the following graph.
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Fig.7 The DC voltage required in each coil is shown in this graph

A humorous analogy help to remember it is to think of BLDC operation like the story of the donkey and the carrot, where the rabbit tries hard to reach the carrot, but the carrot keeps moving out of reach.
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Fig.8 Just like the donkey runs after the carrot, in a BLDC the rotor runs after the moving magnetic flux

Further improving the BLDC Performance

Even though this motor works, it has one drawback. You can notice that, at any instant only one coil is energized. The 2 dead coils greatly reduce the power output of the motor. Here is the trick to overcome this problem. When the rotor is in this position, along with the first coil, which pulls the rotor, you can energize the coil behind it such a way that, it will push the rotor.

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Fig.9 One more coil is energized in practical motors; this will result in a push force apart from the pull force

For this instant, a same polarity current is through the second coil. The combined effect produces more torque and power output from the motor. The combined force also makes sure that a BLDC has a beautiful, constant torque nature. Such torque nature is difficult to achieve in any other type of motors.
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Fig.10 The BLDC has a constant torque nature as shown.

The current form required for the complete 360 degree rotation is shown in the graph below.
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Fig.11 The voltage form required in each of the coil

With this configuration 2 coils need to be energized separately, but by making a small modification to the stator coil, we can simplify this process. Just connect one free end of the coils together, as shown in the Fig.10.
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Fig.12 Connecting one free ends of the coil together makes the BLDC voltage regulation much simpler

When the power is applied between coils A and B, let’s note the current flow through the coils. By comparing second part of the Fig.13 with Fig.9, it is clear that, the current flow is just like the separately energized state.
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Fig.13 This connected winding produces exactly same current flow as that of the separately energized state

Use of an ECU

That’s how a BLDC works. But, you might have some intriguing doubts in your mind. How do I know which stator coils to energize? How do I know when to energize it, so that I will get a continuous rotation from the rotor? In a BLDC we use an electronic controller unit (ECU) for this purpose. A sensor determines the position of the rotor, and based on this information the controller decides, which coils to energize.

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Fig.14 The ECU determines which coil to energize and when to energize it

The schematic figure above shows, how the ECU controls task of energizing the coil. This task is known as commutation. Most often, a Hall-effect sensor is used for this purpose. The Hall-effect sensor is fitted on the back of the motor as shown in the Fig.15.
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Fig.15 A Hall effect sensor is used to determine the position of the rotor

Types of BLDC design

The BLDC design we have discussed so far is known as the out-runner type. Here the runner if fitter around the stator. In-runner BLDC design is also available in the market.

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Fig.16 In an Out-Runner BLDC, the runner sits around the stator

Out-Runner design has a definite mechanical advantage over the In-Runner design. At higher speeds the runner tends to expand slightly due to the centrifugal force. As a result, in In-Runner designs a good amount of clearance should be given between the rotor and runner to avoid the collision. Such higher clearances increase the magnetic flux leakages and reduce efficiency of the motor. But the Out-Runner design has no such limitation, as the runner at the outside is free to expand.



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How does a Diesel Engine work ?

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An internal combustion engine transforms the chemical energy in fuel to mechanical rotational energy. Diesel engines, which have been serving mankind for over a century, are the most versatile and economical IC engines.

A detailed webpage version of the video is given below.



The Basic Working

To release the chemical energy in diesel effectively, an atomized form of the fuel is made to contact with high temperature and high pressure air. The chemical energy release (Combustion) is shown in the Fig.1. In diesel engines, this energy is effectively transferred as mechanical rotational energy.

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Fig.1 When an atomised form of diesel is made to contact with high temperature and pressure air it leads to the release of chemical energy

So the operation of a diesel engine is all about producing high temperature and high pressure air continuously. We will see how this is achieved in this article.

Slider-Crank Mechanism & The basic Assembly

Piston, connecting rod, crank and cylinder form a mechanism called slider-crank mechanism. Here the linear motion of the piston is transformed to a rotary motion at the crank.

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Fig.2 Using Slider-Crank mechanism linear motion of the piston is transformed into rotary motion at the crank

During the motion of the piston, the top most point it can reach is called Top dead centre (TDC) and the bottom most position the piston can reach is called as Bottom dead centre (BDC).

In an IC engine, this mechanism is properly supported in an engine block. Cylinder head, valves and fuel injector are fitted above the engine block.

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Fig.3 The engine block support the Slider-crank mechanism; Cylinder head is fitted above the engine block

The working

When the piston moves downwards, inlet valves open and fresh air from outside is sucked in, or, in other words, the engine breathes. This stroke is called as suction stroke.

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Fig.4 During the suction stroke fresh air which is rich in Oxygen content is sucked in

During the return stroke, inlet and exhaust valves are closed and the air inside the cylinder gets compressed. During the compression stroke, the piston does work on the air. So the temperature and pressure of the air will rise to a level which is higher than the self ignition value of the diesel.
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Fig.5 During compression stroke, the piston does work on the air; so both its pressure and temperature rises

An atomized form of diesel is injected into this compressed air. The fuel gets evaporated and undergoes an uncontrolled spontaneous explosion. As a result, the pressure and temperature rise to high level values.

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Fig.6 Atomized form of fuel is injected into the compressed air

The high energy fluid pushes the piston downwards. The hot air does work on the piston and energy in the fluid is converted to the mechanical energy of the piston. This is the only stroke where the piston absorbs power from the fluid.

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Fig.7 During the power stroke piston absorbs power from the high energy gas

Due to inertia of the system, the piston moves upwards again. This time the exhaust valves open and the exhaust is rejected. Again the suction stroke happens.

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Fig.8 Here exhaust valve is open and the exhaust is rejected

This cycle, which has a total 4 strokes, is repeated over and over for continuous power production.

Use of Bowl in diesel engine piston

You may have noticed that a bowl is provided on top of the diesel engine piston. During the compression stroke this bowl helps produce air that is rapidly swirling. Thus the injected fuel gets mixed with the air effectively.

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Fig.9 The bowl above the diesel engine piston helps to create a rapidly swirling air

The Mechanical Design Aspects

The mechanical design of IC engines, particularly that of diesel engines, is a challenging and interesting task. Since the combustion process in diesel engines is never uniform and smooth, they are prone to more vibration and noise compared to petrol engines. Thus diesel engines require a rugged structural design.

Out of the four strokes, it is only during the power stroke that a tremendous amount of force is exerted on the piston. So a single cylinder engine will always have high force non uniformity . Similarly the output power will also have a fluctuating nature. The variation of force and output power with the piston movement is plotted in Fig. 10.

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Fig.10 The variation of piston force and output power of a single cylinder engine

As a result of high force non uniformity a single cylinder engine will never have a smooth operation; rather it would have a noisy and vibrating operation.

Smooth operation with more number of cylinders

But with more number of cylinders one can overcome these problems. Consider this 4 cylinder engine. Here 4 different strokes occur at a time.

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Fig.11 In a 4 cylinder engine all the 4 strokes occur at a time

So the power stroke is always present in the engine. The total force and total power in 4 cylinder engine is shown in the Fig. 12 & Fig.13 respectively. It is clear that a four cylinder engine will have better force and power uniformity. In short, the more cylinders an engine has the smoother it will operate.
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Fig.12 Total force in a 4 cylinder engine

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Fig.13 Total power in a 4 cylinder engine

A four cylinder engine generally operates on the following firing order.It operates on the firing order of 1-3-4-2. Such a firing order makes sure that the combustion force is balanced along the length of the engine also.
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Fig.14 Generally an IC engine operates on the firing of 1-3-4-2

A heavy flywheel which acts like a power reservoir further helps in smoothing out non uniformity of power. When the engine supplies extra power the flywheel absorbs the power. During the low power operating regimes, the flywheel releases the power to the engine. Thus the power output will have a better uniform nature as shown in the Fig.15.

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Fig.15 The flywheel helps to smooth out the output power

Use of the Counter weights

A huge unbalanced force arises in the form of dynamic unbalance due to the excessive mass at the connecting rod side. Such unbalanced force is balanced by providing counterweights on the crank side.

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Fig.16 Counter weights are provided on the crank side to balance the dynamic force of the connecting rods

Controlling the valve operation

Opening and closing of valves are accurately controlled by a pair of cam shafts. Cam shafts derive motion from the engine.

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Fig.17 Camshafts help to operate the intake and exhaust valve quite accurately

During a complete engine cycle, the crankshaft rotates twice, but the exhaust/intake valve open only once. This means that the camshaft need to be activated only once in an engine cycle. Thus the cam shafts need to rotate at the half the speed of crank shaft. This speed reduction is achieved by using a double sized wheel at Camshaft side than in the the crank side.



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